Applying graphic organizers in teaching reading new textbook – Tieng Anh 10

Reading is an essential skill for English as a second or foreign language (ESL/EFL). For many, reading is the most important skill to master. With strengthened reading skills, ESL/ EFL readers will make greater progress and attain greater development in all academic areas. In Vietnam, English is taught and learned in a non – native environment so reading is not only an important means to gain knowledge but also a means by which further study takes place. According to Carrell (1984:1): ―for many students, reading is by far the most important of the four macro skills, particularly in English as a second or a foreign language. This is also true to the students at Ha Huy Tap High School since the reading skill offers them a wide range of interesting information as well as a variety of language expressions and structures which are of great usefulness for developing other language skills. When dealing with a reading lesson, students find it hard to overcome some challenges in the classroom. In addition to that, teachers are facing to their own problem as well when a new text book are introduced. It means that most of their previous traditional methods should be changed to adjust to their new teaching object and new textbook.

One of the effective solutions to help both of them is using graphic organizers. Graphic organizers actually have the power and potential to enhance the learning ability of students in all age groups. Use of graphic organizers as visual tools for visual learners of comprehension will make comprehending a reading text easy and fun for students. Through the use of graphic organizers, students are able to gain a better understanding of the underlying concepts that can be found within what is being read, allowing them to isolate text that is not important to their learning. This will also enable teachers to determine main ideas so that they can help students entire stories from their reading.

 

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ort, the data analysis of the questionnaires at Ha Huy Tap High school has provided primary important information concerning the students‟ difficulties, what they do in as well as what they would like their teachers to do to help them read more effectively. Having studied the above points, we realized that there were some major problems faced the students. These problems will be discussed in the next section – the findings of the study.
II. SOLUTION
In reading lessons, graphic organizers can be efficiently used in all lessons for 
students of all ages to check not only students, understanding but also motivate and 
make their lessons more interesting. 
Sample 1: Unit 3- Tiếng Anh 10- Student book 1, p.29- Education Publishing House and Pearson
Objectives: By the end of this activity, students will be able to:
State the history and development of Idol program
Stage: Pre-reading / While-reading
Time allowed: 10 minutes
Procedure: 
- ask students to work in groups and help students brainstorm the ideas with the questions “ What do you know about the Idol ?”
- write the information the students brainstorm about the topic in the K (know) column.
- record the questions the students have about the topic in the W (want to know) column. This establishes a purpose for reading or researching.
- ask students to read, research, and discuss the topic
- place the new information in the L (learned) column.
- discus with students whether they can now confirm or deny any statements listed in the K column.
K
What (I) we know
W
What (I) we want to
know
L
What (I) we learned
Expected answer: 
K
What (I) we know
W
What (I) we want to
know
L
What (I) we learned
- The Idol format came from the
UK.
- Pop Idol was first
launched in 2001.
- Contestants are
voted by the audience and TV viewers.
- The first season of Vietnam Idol aired in 2012.
- Who created the Idol format?
- Is Vietnam Idol a franchised programme?
- When did American Idol begin?
- When will American Idol end?
- What are the rules of the Idol?
- Pop Idol, created by the British entertainment executive Simon Fuller, is a music competition which began on British ITV on October 6, 2001 to select the best new young pop singer in the UK based on viewer voting and participation.
-Vietnam Idol is part of the Idol franchised of the original reality program Pop Idol by Simon Fuller.
- The first season of Vietnam Idol aired on May 23, 2007 on HTV9, and the fourth season aired on August 17, 2012.
-American Idol began in 2002 and will end its 15-year run after the upcoming season, finishing in 2016.
Sample 2: Unit 9- Tiếng Anh 10- Student book 2, p.41- Education Publishing House and Pearson
Objectives: By the end of this activity, students will be able to:
- List out the causes and effects of four types of polution
- Recognize their duty of protecting the environment
Stage: While-reading
Time allowed: 10 minutes
Procedure: 
- Divide students into 4 groups
- Deliver the cause & effect map template for students.
Group 1: air pollution
Group 2: noise pollution
Group 3: water pollution
Group 4: soil pollution
- Ask students to list the topic or problem explored in the center of the organizer.
- Each group discuss the causes and effects of one type of polution
- Ask students to present their ideas.
Exhaust from motor vehicles,factories
loss of land
volcanic eruptions
Smoke from aircraft and rocket
rise of sea level
polar ice melting
the burning of fossil fuels
global warming
 Causes 	 	 Effects
I. Air pollution: 
1. causes: - the burning of fossil fuels, motor vehicles,factories,aircraft and rocket, 
volcanic eruptions, dust storms and other natural processes 
2. Effects:
- global warming
- polar ice melting
- rise of sea level
- loss of land 
II. Soil pollution
1. causes:
- dumping plastic or other inorganic waste in the ground
- the overuse of chemical fertilizers in argriculture
- accidental oil spills
- acid rain
2. Effects:
- contaminated vegetation
- the decrease of soil fertility
III. Water pollution
1. causes:
- dumping pollution such as detergents,pesticides, oil and other chemicals in rivers
- sewage and wastewater
- industrial waste
- mining activities
- chemical fertilizers and pesticides
- radioactive waste
- urban development
2. Effects:
- the destruction of ecosystem of rivers....
- the pullution of ground water
IV. Noise pollution
1. causes:
- loud and annoying sounds of motor vehicles, railway, aircraft and jet engines, 
factory machinery and musical instruments
- industrialization
- poor urban planning
- social events
- construction activities
2. Effects:
- human psychological
- health problems for humans such as increased heart rate and hearing damage
Sample 3: Unit 9- Tiếng Anh 10- Student book 2, p.41- Education Publishing House and Pearson
Objectives: By the end of this activity, students will be able to:
- List out the problem and find out solutions for four types of polution
- identify the anticipated results
- Recognize their duty of protecting the environment
Stage: Post-reading
Time allowed: 10 minutes
Procedure: 
- Divide students into 4 groups
- Deliver the problem & solution map template for students.
Group 1: air pollution
Group 2: noise pollution
Group 3: water pollution
Group 4: soil pollution
- Ask students to list the topic or problem explored in the center of the organizer.
- Each group discuss the possible solutions of one type of polution
- Ask students to present their ideas.
 Evidence( optional) 
- acid rain damages water,soil, and vegetation
- polar ice melting
- rise of sea level
- loss of land 
Air pollution 
Possible solutions
- use public mode of transportation
- conserve energy
- understand the concept of Reduce, Reuse and Recycle
- emphasis on clean energy resources
Use energy efficient devices
Sample 4: Unit 9- Tiếng Anh 10- Student book 1, p.9- Education Publishing House and Pearson
Objectives: By the end of this activity, students will be able to:
- identify the differences about responsibility for household chores in two cultures
- recognize the value of sharing household chores between members of family
Stage: Pre-reading
Time allowed: 5 minutes
Procedure: 
- ask students to work in pairs 
- deliver the “Compare & contrast matrix” for students
- ask them to discuss in 5 minutes and fill in the matrix below
- call them to give the answer
- teacher gives feedback and lead in the reading lesson
COMPARE AND CONTRAST MATRIX
 Questions
Answer
In Asian culture
In Western culture
1
Who is the homemaker?
2
Who is the breadwinner?
3
Do family members share the household?
4
Are children willing to help their parents?
5
Is the husband willing to help his wife ?
6
How is the atmosphere for the family when every one works together?
Expected answer: 
 Questions
Answer
In Asian culture
In Western culture
1
Who is the homemaker?
The mother
The mother
2
Who is the breadwinner?
The father
The father
3
Do family members share the household?
Only in some families
In most families 
4
Are children willing to help their parents?
Just a few
Yes, always
5
Is the husband willing to help his wife ?
Just a few
Yes, always
6
How is the atmosphere for the family when every one works together?
positive
positive
Sample 5: Unit 2- Tiếng Anh 10- Student book 1, p.19- Education Publishing House and Pearson
Objectives: By the end of this activity, students will be able to:
- identify the differences and the similarity of acupuncture and acupressure
- recognize the value of the old medical treatments in the world
- know how to live a healthy life
Stage: While-reading and post- reading
Time allowed: 15 minutes
Procedure: 
- ask them to read the passage about Acupressure 
- give some more new word if necessary: fatigue, bruising
- deliver the “Venn diagram” posters and the handouts for students
- ask them to work in four groups
- ask them to read the passage about Acupressure and the passage in the textbook again then discuss the ideas and fill in the diagram.
 - instruct them to write the shared traits or characters in the overlapping section of the circle and the unique traits in the appropriate circle
- go around to help if necessary
- ask students to hang posters on board and present their ideas
- gives feedback
Notes: This activities is designed for the better students. For the lower level, teacher can give some hints belowed so that sudents can use them as suggestion to do the task
1. their origin
2. their basic idea
3. their effect
4. their technique
5. their common side effect
6. their precaution
Acupressure 
Acupuncture
Handouts:
Acupressure is another ancient Chinese method of healing that has also been practiced for thousands of years. The main aim of this treatment is to achieve a balance of the “yin” and “yang”. Acupressure works by applying simple pressure to specific points in the body.
This therapy is practiced by using gentle pressure, applied by the hands of the practitioner. The fingers of the practitioner are used to press into the key points on the surface of the skin and this, in turn, helps to release muscular tension.
Acupuncture and acupressure both help in restoring proper energy flow throughout the body. Since both of these therapies help in reaching the same goal – the reduction of mental or physical pain or the promotion of the healing of injuries – the benefits of these therapies are similar as well. However, the most common side effects with acupressure can be fatigue, soreness, or bruising. And if you have a cancer, a heart problem or you are pregnant, you should ask your doctor first.
Expected answer: 
Differences: 
Main ideas
Acupuncture
Acupressure
1. Technique
Placing hair-thin needles in various pressure points throughout the body
Applying simple pressure to specific points in the body by hands
2.Common side effect
slight bleeding, discomfort. 
 bruising
3. Precaution
- People with bleeding problems 
- people are taking blood related medicine
- people have electronic medical devices
People have a cancer, a heart problem
- People are pregnant
Similarities
Main ideas
Acupuncture/ Acupressure
1. Origin
In China
2. Basic idea
Promoting the balance between yin and yang
3. Effects 
- restoring proper energy flow throughout the body
- reducing mental or physical pain
- promoting the healing of injuries
4. Common side effects
- soreness
- fatigue( tiredness)
Sample 6: Unit 8- Tiếng Anh 10- Student book 2, p.29- Education Publishing House and Pearson
Objectives: By the end of this activity, students will be able to:
- lists different ways of learning English
- compare their ideas with the others in the class
- apply their most favourite or the most effective methods of learning a new language
Stage: Pre- reading
Time allowed: 5 minutes
Procedure: 
- divide class into 6 groups
- ask the students to exchange ideas with a friend in group to list out as many ways of learning as possible 
- call them to report their doing to the class
- ask them to answer the questions: 
1. Which are the new ways to learn English?
2. How often do you use new applications to learn English: A smart phone, a camera, a recorder, a tablet, an English learning software?
3. Which ones are the best choice? Why?
- lead in the new lesson
Ways of learning English
Linh
Hoang
Binh
An
Write on stick notes
Attending extra classes
Hiring a tutor
Apps on ipads
Online games
Pen pals
Practise with friends
Electronic dictionary
III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The forty-one students participating in this study were given the questionare before the study had been conducted in order to assess students’ attitude toward the reading lessons in the textbook. Then, it was used one more time to find out if there were any changes.The results of the final assessment are shown in the chart below
 Chart 3: Students’ attitude towards the importance of reading skill and their reluctance to do the reading tasks
The chart shows that there is a dramatic change in the students’ interest in the reading lessons. The number of students really appreciate the importance of reading has increased to 85,3 %( among those 36,5% think it is very important and 48,7% rather important). Beside that, only a few of them pay no attention to their reading lessons (about 4,8%). 
In comparision to the first survey, haft of the students admitted that they always did the reading tasks reluctantly and some times for the rest, but after nearly 5 months applying the new adaptation, at least 60% ( 25 students) agreed to do the tasks willingly and 29,2 % (12 students) really like doing them.
Based on the data discussed above, it is a satisfactory conclusion that practice with graphic organizers over the six reading lessons can get students more engaged in learning on their own initiative. Teacher can assist students with increasing their reading motivation. The students exposed to the graphic organizers were able to understand the material more and more as time went on. By using the graphic organizers, the students were able to map out parts of the text, allowing them to concentrate on a specific part of the text, and apply that comprehension skill. 
Part III. CONCLUSION
Graphic organizers, without a doubt, can be used as practical tools for students to organize information, to connect keys concepts or ideas presented in the reading text. They also allow students to acknowledge and share their collective understanding or views on the lesson goals. Teachers need to provide such wonderful means for students to organize information before, while, and after reading. 
With the mentioned discussions about the value of graphic organizers and basic samples for their applications, teachers of English, especially Vietnamese teachers of English who are using the new English textbook of grade 10 become confident when integrating such effective organizers into their reading classroom practice. It is strongly believed that graphic organizers can help teachers to activate students’ multiple modalities or their favourite learning styles while immersing themselves in reading books regardless of the age groups or content area.
	Vinh, 27th February 2020
	Writer
	 	Le Thi Mai Huong
REFERENCES
1. Tiếng Anh 10- Student’s book - Education Publishing House and Pearson
2. Tiếng Anh 10- Teacher’s book - Education Publishing House and Pearson
3. Bromley, K., Irwin-DeVitis, L. & Modlo, M. (1999). 50 graphic organizers for reading, writing & more: Reproducible templates, student samples, and easy strategies to support every learner. New York: Scholastic Professional Books.
4. 40 Graphic Organizers That Build Comprehension During Independent Reading © Anina Robb, Scholastic Teaching Resources
 5. Ringler, L. H., & Weber, C. K. (1984). A language -thinking approach to reading. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich
6. GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS –EFFECTIVE TOOLS FOR TEACHING READING SKILLS- Hoang Tang Duc- Vinh Univeristy- 6th International Conference on TESOL 13-14 August, 2015 
7. https://toc.123doc.net/document/2147573-lopk09406-nhom-4-case-study-6-ppt.htm
APPENDICES
APPENDIX 1 QUESTIONNAIRE FOR STUDENTS
This survey questionnaire is intended for the study “APPLYING GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS IN TEACHING READING NEW TEXTBOOK – TIENG ANH 10”
We are grateful for your goodwill and cooperation in truthfully completing the questionnaire, which hopefully takes you just little time. Please be assured that the information you provide will be treated in the strictest confidence.
Thank you very much!
Please tick or write answer where necessary.
How is reading skill important to you?
Very	 B. Rather	 C. Little	D. Not at all
Do you think reading can help you ?
improve other language skills
broaden your knowledge of the world
enrich your vocabulary
improve your grammar
What do you think about reading tasks in the new textbook?
Boring B. Difficult	 C. Easy	 D. Normal
Do you feel reluctant to do reading tasks?
Yes, always	B. Yes, sometimes
C. No, I like doing them very much	D. No, I do them willingly
Besides reading tasks in the textbook, does your teacher design other reading activities to make you more interested in reading?
A. Always	B. Usually	C. Sometimes	D. Never
If yes, what kind of exercises does your teacher often use and which do you feel enjoyable?
Reading tasks
Your teacher often use
You enjoy
Questions and answers
T/F 
Multiple choice 
Deciding the best title
Finding synonyms and antonyms
Gap filling
Reordering 
Completing the table
Matching 
Finding equivalents
What problems are you facing in learning reading?
Your limitation of vocabulary and grammatical structures.
Lack of background knowledge.
The limited time.
Lack of appropriate reading techniques.
What do you often do to overcome difficulties?
Wait for the answer when the teacher correct.
Ask the teacher for help.
Discuss with friends to find out the right answer.
Search for reading materials on the Internet.
How would you like to participate in reading tasks?
Work individually	B. Work in pairs	
C. Work in groups 	D. Whole class
What do you expect from your teachers to help you overcome difficulties?
Encourage you to activate your previous knowledge into reading text.
Offer you as many chances to read the passage as you expect.
Provide you with certain key words.
Suggest you essential reading techniques needed for each kind of reading tasks.
Exploit different kinds of reading materials suitable to your reading ability and your interest.
Others (please specify): ......................................................................................
Thank you very much for your cooperation!
APPENDIX 2 
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR TEACHERS
This survey questionnaire is intended for the study “APPLYING GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS IN TEACHING READING NEW TEXTBOOK – TIENG ANH 10”
We are grateful for your goodwill and cooperation in truthfully completing the questionnaire, which hopefully takes you just little time. Please be assured that the information you provide will be treated in the strictest confidence.
Thank you very much!
Please tick or write answer where necessary.
How is reading skill important to your students?
Very	 B. Rather	 C. Little	D. Not at all
2. What do you think about reading tasks in the new textbook?
A. Boring B. Difficult C. Easy	D. Normal
Besides reading tasks in the textbook, do you design other reading activities to make your students more interested in reading?
A. Always	B. Usually	C. Sometimes	D. Never
How often do you use the following reading tasks in a reading lesson?
Reading tasks
Your teacher often use
You enjoy
Questions and answers
T/F 
Multiple choice 
Deciding the best title
Finding synonyms and antonyms
Gap filling
Reordering 
Completing the table
Matching 
Finding equivalents
What problems are you facing in teaching reading ?
Students’ limitation of vocabulary and grammatical structures
The lack of students’ background knowledge
The limited time
Students’ lack of appropriate reading techniques
Large classes
Others (please specify)......................................................................................
What do you often do to help your students overcome difficulties in reading?
Encourage your students to activate their previous knowledge into reading text.
Offer your students as many chances to read the passage as they expect.
Provide your students with certain key words.
Suggest your students essential reading techniques needed for each kind of reading tasks.
Exploit different kinds of reading materials suitable to your students’ reading ability and their interest.
Others (please specify): ..............................................................................
Thank you very much for your cooperation!

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