Helping the grade 12 students improve their sense of responsibility to themselves, their families and society through post-Reading activities

Responsibility is defined as the state or fact of having a duty to deal with something or of having control over someone; thestate or fact of being accountable or to blame for something; the opportunity or ability to act independently and take decisions without authorization; a thing which one is required to do as part of a job, role, or legal obligation. Responsibility is the burden someone is obligated to fulfill in order to meet a particular need. Someone’s level of meeting his responsibilities shows how trustworthy he is, particularly if he consistently meets his responsibilities.

A sense of responsibility is an awareness of one’s obligations; it’s like doing what we suppose to do. It can be defined as a general conscious awareness; "a sense of security"; "a sense of happiness"; "a sense of danger"; "a sense of self".

 

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nt: reduce, reuse and recycle. 
Start composting brown leaves in your yard and green scraps from your kitchen. 
Reconnect with nature. 
Use eco-friendly or biodegradable materials instead of plastic which are made up of highly toxic substances injurious to your health.
Create your green space.
Have a proper waste disposal system especially for toxic wastes.
Never throw, run or drain or dispose into the water, air, or land any substance in solid, liquid or gaseous form that shall cause pollution.
Do not cause loud noises and unwanted sounds to avoid noise pollution.
Do not litter in public places.
Industries should use fuel with lower sulphur content.
Industries should monitor their air emissions regularly and take measures to ensure compliance with the prescribed emission standards.
Industries should strictly follow applicable government regulations on pollution control.
Organic waste should be dumped in places far from residential areas.
The following pictures illustrate the students' activities and their production:
3.3. Sample application 3 -Unit 10: Endangered species
Aim: Raise students' responsibilities for protecting wildlife.
Suggested activity: Role play: Pretend a TV reporter in a Wildlife World programme, report the situation of endangered species, the causes, the consequences of the extinction and suggest some measures to protect these species
Time limit: 10 minutes
Preparation:
- Teacher: Prepare a poster of suggested answers 
- Students: Prepare posters and pens for group work; find out the measures to protect wildlife.
Procedure: 
- Teacher explains the task and makes a model.
Divide the class into groups to work out the main ideas of the report
After 5 minutes, call the representatives of the groups to perform
Ask other groups to give comments
Teacher gives feedback and shows the suggested answers
Suggested answers:
Situation: over 8,300 plant species and 7,200 animal species are threatened with extinction, and many thousands more become extinct each year.
Causes: habitat destruction, commercial exploitation and pollution.
Consequences: a loss of biodiversity, loss of many medicines and other products.
Measures: Making a red list of endangered species, government enacts laws to protect wildlife.
Each individual should:
- Learn about endangered species in your area.
- Protect wildlife habitat.

- Visit a national wildlife refuge, park or other open space.
- Reduce your use of water in your home and garden so that animals that live in or near water can have a better chance of survival. 
- Limit using herbicides and pesticides 
- Recycle and buy sustainable products. 

- Never purchase products made from threatened or endangered species.

- Not participate in harassing wildlife, and report it as soon as you see it to your local state or federal wildlife enforcement office.
The following pictures illustrate the students' activities and their production:
3.4. Sample application 4-Unit 13: The 22nd SEA Games
Aim: Arouse students' patriotism and national pride.
Suggested activity: Discussion: How to show your patriotism and national pride?
Time limit: 10 minutes
Preparations: 
- Students: Prepare posters and pens for group work; think about what they should do to show their patriotism and national pride.
- Teacher: Prepare 5 questions:
Question 1: Do you often watch the sport events at the SEA Games?
Question 2: What song does each team always sing before each football match?
Question 3: What do the spectators fly when they cheer their national team, especially when their team wins the match?
Question 4: Why do they do that?
Question 5: And you, do you love our country? 
Question 6: What do you do to show your patriotism and national pride?
Procedure:
- Ask students some questions above to lead in:
 Example:
Teacher: Do you often watch the sport events at the SEA Games?
Student: Well, occasionally
Teacher: What song does each team always sing before each football match?
Student: Of course, it is their national anthem
Teacher: What do the spectators often fly when they cheer their national team, especially when their team wins the match?
Students: I'm sure it is their national flag
Teacher: Why do they do that?
Students: Well, I think because they love their country and they are proud of it.
Teacher: And you, do you love our country?
Student: Yes, of course.
Teacher: What do you often do to show your patriotism and national pride? Let's discuss with your classmates and tell us your actions.
- Divide the class into groups of six to discuss the questions.
- After 5 minutes, call some students to report their production.
- Ask other groups to give comments
- Teacher gives feedback shows the suggested answers
Suggested answers:
How to show patriotism and national pride:
- Respect and study our national history
- Honor the national heroes
- Be grateful to the war invalids and the families of martyrs
Support the army and active-duty military.
Keep our surroundings clean.
Be proud ofcampaign abot the pros of our country.
Celebrate the diversity of our country.
Do volunteer work
Buy local, prefer indigenous products.
Fly the flag on special occasions 
Struggle against the enemy and reactionary.
- Take a more active part in socio-economic development, social welfare, poverty reduction, national construction and defence.
The following pictures illustrate the students' activities and their production:
3.5. Sample application 5 -Unit 14: International organizations
Aim: Promote good citizenship and cultivate the students' compassion. 
Suggested activity: Discussion: Of the following activities, which are The Red Cross' activities and which are the charity work you can participate in.
Time limit: 10 minutes
Preparation:
- Students: Prepare posters and pens for group work; think about the charity work they can take part in.
-Teacher: Prepare a list of charity work, a work, and a poster of suggested answers.
Charity work
- Helping disadvantages or handicapped children
- Volunteering at a hospital, in the home of sick or old people.
- Collecting gifts for children’s hospitals.
- Raising money for a charity.
- Taking care of war invalids and the families of martyrs
- Helping reduce the suffering of wounded soldiers, civilians, and prisoners of war in the war time.
- Collecting old clothes for children and people in remote and mountainous areas.
- Collecting trash or clean up a park to promote environmental awareness.
 - Giving medical aid and other help to victims of major disasters such as floods, earthquakes, epidemics, and famines.
Hosting an event to raise funds to help people and communities affected by a disaster.
Collecting children’s books and other reading materials for shelters, libraries and schools, then ask if they need volunteer readers.
Participating in a cleanup day at a local beach, trail, waterway or park.
Helping people in mountainous areas.
The work sheet
The Red Cross's activities
Activities you can participate in
.
.
.
.
.
.
Procedure: 
Show students the list of charity work.
Divide the class into groups of six.
Students discuss to put the activities into the right column.
After 5 minutes, call some students to report the Red Cross's activities and the charity work they can participate in.
Ask other groups to give comments
Teacher gives feedback and shows the suggested answers
Suggested answers:
The Red Cross's activities
Activities you can participate in
- Helping disadvantages or handicapped children
- Volunteer at a hospital, in the home of sick or old people.
- Collect gifts for children’s hospitals.
- Raise money for a charity.
- Taking care of war invalids and the families of martyrs
- Help reduce the suffering of wounded soldiers, civilians, and prisoners of war in the war time.
- Give medical aid and other help to victims of major disasters such as floods, earthquakes, epidemics, and famines.
- Improve the lives of vulnerable people who are victims of natural disasters, poverty and health emergencies
- Helping people in mountainous areas.
- Helping disadvantages or handicapped children
- Taking part in directing the traffic
- Volunteer at a hospital, in the home of sick or old people.
- Collect gifts for children’s hospitals.
- Raise money for a charity.
- Taking care of war invalids and the families of martyrs
- Collect old clothes for children and people in remote and mountainous areas.
- Collect trash or clean up a park to promote environmental awareness.
- Collect children’s books and other reading materials for shelters, libraries and schools, then ask if they need volunteer readers.
- Participate in a cleanup day at a local beach, trail, waterway or park.
- Helping people in mountainous areas.
The following pictures illustrate the students' activities and their production:
3.6. Sample application 6- Unit 15: Women in society
Aim: Raise students' responsibilities for preventing family violence.
Suggested activity: Discussion: How to prevent family violence.
Time limit: 10 minutes
Preparations:
- Student: Prepare posters and pens for group work; find out the causes and solutions to family violence.
- Teacher: Prepare a picture of family violence, some questions for discussing and a poster of the suggested answers.
The questions:
Question 1: Do you think that women are equal to men in society now?
Question 2: What matter do you think is happening in the picture?
Question 3: What do you think are causes of family violence?
Question 4: What will you do if you know someone is a victim of family violence?
Question 5: How can we help stop family violence?
Procedure: 
Show the picture for the students to guess the problem.
Ask students some questions to lead in:
Teacher: Do you think that women are equal to men in society now?
Student: Yes, I think they have gained equal rights to men.
Teacher: What matter do you think is happening in the picture?
Student: In my opinion it's family violence
Teacher: Is this one of the most serious problems that women are suffering? What may be causes of family violence and how to prevent family violence? Let's discuss to find out causes and solutions.
- Give students the three questions to discuss as suggestion to solve the problems:
What do you think are causes of family violence?
What will you do if you know someone is a victim of family violence?
How can we help stop family violence?
Divide the class into groups of six to discuss.
After 5 minutes, call some pairs to present their production.
Ask other groups to give comments.
Teacher gives feedback.
Suggested answers:
The causes of family violence are: 
low academic achievement
cultural beliefs/traditional viewpoints
the men's low self-esteem
desire for power or control
mental illness
substance abuse
If I know someone is a victim of family violence, I will: 
ask them to tell me about what is happening to them.
listen to them and let them know I believe them and what is being done to them is a crime.
help them find the support they need.
How can we help stop family violence?
Learn more about family violence to recognize it and help people who may be victims
Report abuse when we see it
Think about our own actions and how to talk with others about violent actions
Volunteer with or join an organization that is dedicated to stopping family violence.
The following pictures illustrate the students' activities and their production:
3.7. Sample application 7-Unit 16: The Association of Southeast Asian Nations
Aim: Raise students' responsibilities for the country's economic integration.
Suggested activity: Discussion: Discuss the roles of the young to the country's economic integration, and what each student should do to meet the requirements of the country's economic integration.
Time limit: 10 minutes
Preparation:
-Students: Prepare posters and pens for group work; think about what they should do to meet the requirement of the country's economic integration.
- Teacher: Prepare 4 questions to discuss.
Question 1: When did Vietnam join ASEAN?
Question 2: Do you think integrating is a chance or a challenge?
Question 3: What do you think about the roles of the young to our country's economic integration?
Question 4: What should the young do to meet the requirement of the economic integration?
Procedure:
- Teacher explains the task and asks students some questions to lead in:
Teacher: When did Vietnam join ASEAN?
Student: Vietnam joined ASEAN in 1995.
Teacher: Do you think integrating is a chance or a challenge?
Student: I think it is both a chance and a challenge.
Teacher: What do you think about the roles of the young to our country's economic integration?
Student: In my opinion, the young play an important role to our country's economic integration.
Teacher: What should the young do to meet the requirement of the economic integration? Let's work in groups and discuss the question.
- Divide the class into groups of six to discuss.
- After 5 minutes, call some students to report.
- Ask other groups to give comments.
- Teacher gives feedback and shows the suggested answers.
Suggested answers:
What to do to meet the requirement of the economic integration:
Equip themselves with knowledge and information about international integration
Strengthen fitness and health
Improve qualifications, expertise and profession;
Preserve the national cultural identity
Study other countries' culture, history, religion, custom
Take part in activities of international youth exchanges...
Studying hard to improve ability of foreign language and technology
Equip necessary soft skills such as: communication, teamwork, problem solving, initiative and enterprise, planning and organising, self-management,
The following pictures illustrate the students' activities and their production:
V. RESULTS AND COMMENTS
1. Results.
I applied these post-reading activities to teach my grade 12 students in the school year 2018-2019. In spite of some difficulties, we achieved considerable success. The effect of the activities helped our students realise what they should do for themselves, their school and society. This can be seen as the motivation for students to try to learn more. My students gradually gave up some negative habits; they behaved better and better; they paid attention to the lessons more and their sense of learning was improved. They also volunteered to take part in social activities organised by school and the community instead of being required as before.
We have carried out the survey again with the same questions for the same students from three classes last time. The survey was done the second time at the end of the second semester (after using these activities) to check how effective the activities have brought about. The table below shows the results of the survey before and after using the activities with the aim of improving the students' sense of responsibility.
Questions
Answers
Before using the activities
After using the activities
1. Do you think how important sense of responsibility is?
A. Normal
42%
25%
B. Important
35%
45%
C.Very important
23%
30%
2. How often do you think about your responsibilities in your daily activities?
A. Rarely
27%
3%
B. Sometimes
55%
25%
C. Usually
18%
72%
3. Do you find it necessary to be taught sense of responsibility in the class?
A. Unnecessary
9%
0%
B. Necessary
51%
52%
C. Very necessary
40%
48%
4. Do you learn much about sense of responsibility through your English lessons?
A. Little
30%
10%
B. Normal
62%
42%
C. Much
8%
38%
5. How much is your sense of responsibility to yourselves, your family and society?
A. Little
41%
13%
B. Normal
45%
35%
C. Much
4%
52%
2. Comments.
The survey shows that in comparison with before using the interventional activities, most of the students have changed their awareness of their sense of responsibility. After using the activities, we have found that the students not only realized the importance of sense of responsibility but they also improved their sense of their responsibility. They found it necessary to be taught sense of responsibility. They learned much about sense of responsibility through English lessons as well, so they were aware of what they had to do, they acted more responsibly. In fact, their sense of responsibility to themselves, their families and society has risen effectively. 
PART III: CONCLUSION
The study was started at the beginning of the previous school year, when I was assigned to teach five grade 12 classes. At first, I was very worried about my students' sense of learning and their behaviors. This is the reason why I tried to determine the causes and find out solutions. My solutions met a number of difficulties because of our students' poor ability of English. They were not confident to speak English and not enough vocabulary to express their ideas as well. However, with the aim of teaching sense of responsibility mainly, the accuracy of using language was not focused on. The students might not be able to express all what they wanted to say but at least they had been aware of what they should do. Besides, the students were encouraged to speak out their thoughts and opinion to suggest the solutions to the given problems with the help of the teacher and their group members. By using information technology, I was able to find out much useful information to carry out the study. Moreover, the study has been completed with the help of myschool’s Board of Directors, my colleagues and my students.
With the methods have been suggested in this study, the post-reading activities designed in the text book Tieng Anh 12 have been adapted completely. The post-reading stage is not simple for students to comprehend or summarize the reading text any more. Instead, it gives students the chance to apply what they possess into their real life. Another success is that our students not only have chances to get a living lessons and improve their sense of responsibility they also improve their reading, speaking, teamwork skills and raise their creativity. It can be said that these activities are not completely effective. However, it is undeniable that they are quite practical. They have significantly contributed to improving our students' sense of responsibility recently. Our students have been aware of what they have to do for themselves, their families and society and practise in their real life. They have gradually improved their behaviors and sense of learning.
In fact, these are only some suggested activities; other teachers can design different post-reading activities as long as they can make students think about what they have to do for themselves, their families and society. We can also apply similar activities to improve students' responsibilities through post-listening stage. Even for Tieng Anh 10 and 11 we can use post-reading stage with this aim to teach the grade 10 and 11. I personally think that teaching responsibility should be encouraged to apply into other subjects.
The measures have been given out are just from my own experiences during the process of teaching. Consequently, it must contain a number of weaknesses. I would like to get the comments and good idea from readers and other teachers so that the topic will become more interesting and perfect.
REFERENCES
1.Adrian, D.Teach English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press in association with the British Council (1998)
2.Graham Crookes, A Practicum in TESOL: Development through Teaching Practice. Cambridge University Press (2003)
3. Harmer, J. How to teach English. London: Longman Press (1991)
4. Hoang Van Van, Tieng Anh 12 textbook (2008)
5. 
6.
7.https://www.lexico.com/definition/responsibility
8.https://www.thefreedictionary.com/sense+of+responsibility
9. www.google.com.vn
10. www.teachhub.com

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