Sáng kiến kinh nghiệm Câu điều kiện theo quan điểm mới

I. Lí do chọn đề tài

Ngoại ngữ nói chung và Tiếng Anh nói riêng đã, đang và sẽ trở thành một môn văn hóa cơ bản trong chương trình giáo dục phổ thông. Đồng thời việc giảng dạy ngoại ngữ - Tiếng Anh cũng đang được các nhà trường, các nhà giáo dục, nhiều dự án giáo dục và đông đảo giáo viên quan tâm và đưa ra nhiều phương pháp dạy học thích hợp. Trong chương trình Tiếng Anh THPT, Câu Điều Kiện – Conditional Sentences, là một trong các phần ngữ pháp lớn có trong các kì thi tốt nghiệp THPT, ĐHCĐ và thi học sinh giỏi. Tuy nhiên, đại đa số học sinh mới nắm được cấu tạo và cách sử dụng của câu điều kiện loại 1 (type 1), loại 2 (type 2) và loại 3 (type 3). Các em thường vẫn lúng túng khi gặp các loại câu điều kiện có hình thức hỗn hợp. Do vậy nhiều học sinh đã gặp khó khăn trong việc phân biệt và làm các bài tập liên quan câu điều kiện.

Vì vậy tôi mạnh dạn đưa ra một số hình thức nhận biết câu điều kiện theo quan niệm cũ và quan niệm mới cùng một số dạng bài tập thường gặp nhằm giúp các em củng cố ngữ pháp và luyện tập một cách hiệu quả và đạt kết quả cao trong các kì thi.

II. Mục đích nghiên cứu

Trong chương trình Tiếng Anh “Câu điều kiện” được đưa vào giảng dạy ở các khối lớp 10, 11 và 12 với các dạng bài tập khác nhau. Trong chuyên đề của mình tôi chỉ đưa ra một số cấu trúc ngữ pháp, cách xác định câu điều kiện và các dạng bài tập về câu điều kiện với hình thức tự luận và trắc nghiệm.

III. Đối tượng nghiên cứu.

Với chuyên đề này tôi chọn đối tượng là học sinh THPT và học theo chương trình sách giáo khoa chương trình chuẩn hiện hành. Học sinh có lực học khác nhau: giỏi, khá, trung bình và yếu.

IV. Giới hạn phạm vi nghiên cứu

Chuyên đề đưa ra công thức cấu tạo và bài tập ứng dụng của các loại câu điều kiện có trong chương trình.

Chuyên đề này được ứng dụng ở các lớp: 12A24 12A5và 12B2 và đạt được kết quả: Hầu hết học sinh đã biết cách làm bài tập liên quan đến câu điều kiện phù hợp với lực học và có tiến bộ rõ rệt.

 

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18. If Ken .. the train, he would have been late for his interview.
 A. missed	B. has missed	C. miss	D. had missed
19. It ............................. be a pity if she married Fred.
 A. will	B. would	C. can 	D. may
20. I know I’ll feel better if I .................................. smoking.
 A. will stop	B. stopped	C.stop	D. had stopped
21. I  that coat if I .you.
 A. wouldn’t buy/ were	B. didn’t buy/ were
 C. don’t buy/ am	D. won’t buy/ am
22. If the driver in front  so suddenly, the accident wouldn’t have happened
 A. hasn’t stopped	B. hadn’t stopped	C. didn’t stop	D. don’t stop
23. If I  a lot of money now, I  .....a new car.
 A. have/ will buy	B. have/ would buy	
 C. had/ will buy 	 D. had/ would buy
24. If you .here yesterday, you me.
 A. were/ would meet	B. had been/ would meet	
 C. were/ would have met	D. had been/would have been
25. If I find it, I  you.
 A. will tell	B. shall tell	C. would tell	D. A and B
26. If I  you were in hospital, I  to see you.
	A. know/ will go	B. knew/ would go	
C. had known/ would have gone 	D. all are incorrect
27. You are late. If you  a few minutes earlier, you  him.
A. came / would meet	B. had come / would have met 
 C. come / will meet	D. had come / would meet
28. I’d have gone swimming yesterday afternoon if I  time.
A. had	B. have had	C. had had	 D. would have had
29. If you didn’t do this, you  punished.
A. are	B. will be	C. should	D. would be
30. If he had told me the truth, I  him.
A. will not punish	 B. would not have punished 
 C. would not punis D.would have not punished
31. “What do you think about the U.S?”
“If I had known it was so industrialized, I  come here”
A. would never have	B. would never	C. will never D. have been
32. If they had not given me advice, I  again.
A. would have failed 	B. would fail	
C. would have been failed	D. wouldn’t fail
33. If I  a scholarship to England, my parents would be very proud of me.
A. get	B. got	C. had got	D. will get
34. Bill  more photographs if he  more film.
A. would take / had had	B. would have taken / had
C. would take / has had	D. would have taken / had had
35. I would have met you at the bus terminal if I  that you were arriving.
A. know	B. had known	C. knew	D. would know
36. If there  no floods last year, the crop  better.
A. had been / would have been	B. were / would be
C. had / would have been	D. was / would have been
37. I don’t have enough time. If I  more time, I  to see you.
A. have / will come	B. had / would come	
C. have had / will have come	D. had had / would have come
38. Peter failed the final exam. If he  harder, he .
A. has worked / will succeed	 B. worked / succeeded
C. had worked / would succeed	 D. had worked /would have succeeded
39. If he  taller, he  able to join the police.
A. is / will be	B. was / would be	
C. were / would be	D. were / will be
40. If I had known it would rain, I  my umbrella.
A. will take	B. would take	
C. am going to take	D. would have taken
41. If he worked harder, he .
A. will not be sacked 	B. will not have been sacked 
 	 C. had not been sacked 	 D. would not be sacked
42. If he had arrived late, we  without him.
A. would have begun	B. would begin	
C. would have began	D. will begin
43.We  on time if we waited for him.
A. will not be	B. would not be	
C. would not have been	D. had not been
44. I would not have got lost if I  the map.
A. studied	B. have studied	C. had studied	D. would study
45. If energy  inexpensive an unlimited, many things in the world would be different.
A. is 	B. will be	C. were	D. would be
46.We  the game if we’d had a few more minutes.
A. might have won	 B. won	C. had won	D. will win
47. Unless you  all of my questions, I can’t do anything to help you.
A. answered	B. answer	C. would answer	D.are answering
48. Had you told me that this was going to happen, I .............. it.
A. would never have believed	B. don’t believe 
C. hadn’t believed	 	D. can’t believe
49. If I ............... you, I’d get some rest before the game tomorrow.
A. am	B. could be	C. were	D. had been
50. “Here’s my phone number”
“Thanks. I’ll give you a call if I ............... some help tomorrow”
A. will need	B. need	C. would need	D. needed
51. If I were you, I ............... that job.
A. would apply for	B. will ask for	
C. will have changed	D. can take
52. If I  a wish, I’d wish for happiness for my family.
A. have	B. am having	C. had	D. was having
53. If we  enough rain, we could have grown rice.
A. had had	B. had	C. have had	D. didn’t have
54. If he  us the truth in the first place, things wouldn’t have gone so wrong.
A. has told	B. had told	
C. would have told	D. should have told
55. I’ll be able speak English well if I  hard.
A. studied	B. study	C. have studied	D. has studied
56................... if I take a map.
A. I will get lost	B. I will not get lost	
C. I would get lost	D. I would not get lost
57......, I’d have told you the answer.
A. If you asked me 	 B. Unless you asked me 
 	C. You had asked me 	 D. Had you asked me
58. If you  careful with electricity, you may get a shock.
A. don’t 	B. won’t	C. wouldn’t	D. aren’t 
59. If I the trick with my own eyes, I would never have believed it possible.
A. don’t see	B. didn’t see	C. hadn’t seen	D. haven’t seen
60. If someone  into the store, smile and say, “May I help you?”
A. comes	B. came	C. come	D. could come
Exercise 10. Choose the best answer
1. If I _______you, I ________him the secret. 
A. was/ would tell	B. were/would tell	C. had been/would tell	D. had been/would have told
2. He _______tired now if he didn’t work hard yesterday.
A. wouldn’t be	B. won’t be	C. won’t have been	D. wouldn’t have been
3. If Mr. Tom had left Paris two hours ago, he _______in London an hour ago.
A. would arrive	B. may arrive C. may have arrived	D. would have arrived
4. If Mary _______ to the movies last night, she may still be sleeping now.
A. went	B. had gone	C. would go	D. would have gone
5. Unless you start at once, you ________late.
A. are 	B. will be	C. would late	D. won’t late
6. I _______ you when I go to bed.
A. phone	B. would phone	C. will phone	D. don’t phone
7. Supposing you saw a flying saucer, what ____________?
A. would you do	B. you would do	C. will you do	D. you will do
8. He _______now if he watched football late last night.
A. is sleeping now	B. sleeps	C. would be sleeping	D. will be sleeping
9. If they _________to Huong Pagoda by coach, they wouldn’t have got carsick.
A. didn’t go	B. had gone	C. hadn’t gone	haven’t gone
10. I ________on condition that you go with me. 
A. won’t go	B. shall go	C. shan’t go	D. didn’t go
11. Assuming we had good weather now, we _________be there by dusk.
A. will be	B. won’t be	 C. would be	D. wouldn’t be
12. If only he _______me some money, I could have bought that new hi-fi.
A. gave	B. has given	C. hadn’t given	D. had given
13. Should you want to get good marks, you ______harder.
A. must learn	B. mustn’t learn	C. had to learn	D. would learn
14. Had we only thought of it in time, we ________troubles.
A. wouldn’t get	B. would get	C. would have got	D. wouldn’t have got
15. Were we to find them at home, we ________them to go to the cinema with us.
A. will invite	B. would invite	C. would have invited	D. will have invited
16. If Jack and Alice get married next year, they ________their sweetmoon in Paris.
A. would have	B. have	C. had	D. will have
17. If our baby ________a girl, we will call her Marilyn.
A. is	B. was	C. will be	D. shall be
18. If her sister is at home now, she ________with her mother.
A. is cooking	B. will cook	C. will be cooking	D. will be cooked
19. They will have had some children if they ________married for 15 years.
A. are married	B. were	C. had be	D. had been
20. Peter ________on the Great Wall if he had visited China last week.
A. will be visiting	B. would visit	C. would be visiting	D. would have visited
Exercise 11: Error identification
1. If I had had some money, I would give you some.	 A	 B	 C	 D
2. If he jogs regularly, his health wouldn’t be so bad as it is now.	 A	 B C	 D
3. I won’t go to school tomorrow unless I don’t feel better.	 A	 B	 C D
4. I didn’t know about it. If I had known about it I would come. 	 A	 B	 C D
5. I would make a very interesting film about mathematicians if I am a film 
 A B C D
director. 
6. We could have saved more time if we took the plane.
 A 	 B C 	 D
7. If the class is full, we would find another one.	
 A	 B	 C	 D
8. If I graduated from college, I wouldn’t have missed the opportunity last year
 A	 B	 C	 	 D
9. If I were in your position, I would have changed the job.	
 A	 B	 	 C	 D
10. If she bought that house now, she ran out of money.
 A	 B	 C	 D 
11. Were our train arrived punctually, we should have time to visit your sister. 
 A B C 	 D
12. If Jack had not been honest, he would have returned the money.	
 A	 B	 C	 D
13. We would be making a profit if all will go according to the plan.
 A B C D
14. I’ll be at the cinema on time unless I’ll have to work overtime. 	
 A	 B	 C	 D
15. If you had been careless, you wouldn’t have had an accident. 	 A	 B	 C	 D
16. If I die, please to inform my wife. 	 A B C D
17. If it hadn’t rain yesterday, I would have come to see you.	
 A B	 C	D
18. If we had known the news, we would have been told you.	
 A	 B	 C	 D
19. If we were serious about pollution, we spent more money on research.	
 A	 B	 C	 D
20. They would be glad unless the rain stopped soon.	 A	 B	 C D
21. Tom would feel better if he takes the medicine.	 A	 B C	 D
22. If I am 10 centimeters taller, I would play basketball.
 A	 B	 C	D
23. If I were you, I will go to the dentist’s and have the tooth checked.
 A	 B	 C	 D
24. If the weather weren’t too bad, we would to go swimming.
 A	 B	 C	 D
25. If the doctors could find in the remedy, a lot of people would be saved.
 A	 B	C	 D
26. Unless there had been a heavy storm, the climber will not have died.
 A B C D
27. What would you have do if you were in my position?
 A B C D
28. If I had knew the time when the match started, I would have told you.
 A B C D
29. If had I known you were in financial difficulty, I would have helped you.
 A B C D
30. If she had listened to my direction, she will not turn down the wrong street. 
 A B C D
PHẦN THỨ BA: KẾT LUẬN
I. Ý NGHĨA CỦA CHUYÊN ĐỀ
Trong quá trình giảng dạy Tiếng Anh tại trường THPT Nguyễn Bính, tôi đã giới thiệu cho các em những kiến thức cơ bản về câu điều kiện trong Tiếng Anh. Đối với từng đối tượng học sinh khác nhau thì yêu cầu về kiến thức cũng khác nhau. Đối với những học sinh yếu tôi chỉ giới thiệu những kiến thức cơ bản để các em phân biệt được ba loại câu điều kiện trong bài tập tự luận và trắc nghiệm. Đối với học sinh có lực học khá giỏi tôi cung cấp kiến thức cao hơn. Vì vậy trong quá trình giảng dạy tôi nhận thấy phần lớn học sinh đã nắm được các kiến thức cơ bản và áp dụng lám được các bài tập trắc nghiệm phục vụ cho thi tốt nghiệp THPT.
II. ĐỀ XUẤT Ý KIẾN
Khi thực hiện chuyên đề này giáo viên nên chú ý đến chủ điểm, cấu trúc ngữ pháp và từng đối tượng học sinh để đề ra yêu cầu phù hợp. Hướng dẫn cho học sinh hiểu rõ yêu cầu, song nó phải mang tính logic, mặt khác phải tôn trọng tính độc lập và sáng tạo của học sinh.
III. SUY NGHĨ CỦA BẢN THÂN
Khi nghiên cứu chuyên đề nầy tôi mong muốn áp dụng những nội dung yêu cầu của lí thuyết và dạng bài tập rèn luyện ngữ pháp vào việc giảng dạy môn Tiếng Anh trong trường THPT. Đồng thời tôi cũng mong muốn được sự tham gia đóng góp của bạn bè đồng nghiệp để nội dung vấn đề thêm phong phú và hoàn hảo hơn.
Tôi xin chân thành cảm ơn!
Vụ Bản, ngày tháng năm 2013
 Người viết 
 Phạm Thị Lan Hương
PHẦN THỨ TƯ: ANSWER KEY
Exercise 1:
1. is
11. doesn’t start
2. don’t go
12. will you repay
3. will start
13. won’t be able
4. are
14. won’t be
5. doesn’t arrive
15. will steal
6. is
16, sells
7. accepts
17. won’t let
8. falls
18. don’t go
9. comes
19. eats
10. washes
20. will happen
Exercise 2 :
1. would write
10. would you buy
19. would catch
2. were
11. knew
20. passed
3. painted
12. lived
21. told
4. wouldn’t come
13. would you feel
22. were elected
5. would buy
14. got
23. were
6. wouldn’t have
15. were – would tell
24. didn’t work
7. were - wouldn’t worry
16. had
25. worked
8. had
17. had
9. wouldn’t pass
18. would you choose
Exercise 3:
1. had worn
9. had been – wouldn’t have bitten
2. wouldn’t have had
10. had been
3. wouldn’t have felt
11. wouldn’t have overslept
4. had had
12. had spoken
5. hadn’t rained
13. wouldn’t have been
6. would have bought
14. had been
7. had spoken
15. had known – would have gone
8. had had – would have taken
Exercise 4:
1. were – would apply
16. would phone
2. spoke
17. had – would travel
3. make
18. had told – would have visited
4. didn’t eat
19. will catch
5. will accept
20. would have met
6. had been
21. had
7. is
22. hadn’t operated
8. take
23. would give
9. were – would be able
24. will give
10. reads
25. is – will go
11. would wear
26. didn’t eat
12. miss
27. had taken
13. did
28. will be
14. wouldn’t have left
29. would feel
15. would you do
30. didn’t have
Exercise 5:
1. Unless I feel better, I won’t go to school.
2. Unless you question Tony, he won’t talk to you.
3. Unless you put on your overcoat, you’ll be cold.
4. Unless you work hard, you will fail the exam.
5. Unless you keep your feet dry, you will get a cold.
6. Unless I leave now, I’ll miss my flight.
7. Unless you are going to the party, I won’t go.
8. Unless you give me your address, I can’t send you a postcard.
9. Unless I won a big prize in a lottery, I wouldn’t build a school for the poor.
10. Unless you leave me alone, I’ll call the police.
Exercise 6:
1. If they weren’t poor, they could help us. 
2. If he did his homework, he wouldn’t be punished.
3. If he had enough time, he could help me.
4. If she took some exercise, she wouldn’t be overweight.
5. He wouldn’t go to class late if he had a bicycle.
6. I could do homework if I weren’t bad/ were good at English.
7. If he practised speaking French, he would speak it fluently.
8. If it didn’t snow heavily, the meeting couln’t be cancelled.
9. If it didn’t rain, we would go.
10. If John didn’t eat so many chips, he wouldn’t be fat.
Exercise 7:
1. If he had arrived, he wouldn’t have missed the train.
2. If it hadn’t rained, we would have gone.
3. If we had had a map, we wouldn’t have got lost.
4. If he hadn’t been late every day, he wouldn’t have lost his job.
5. If the airport hadn’t been closed, she could have flown to Rome.
6. If Sue hadn’t eaten four cream cakes, she wouldn’t have felt sick.
7. If my brother had left the car keys, I could have picked him up at the station.
8. If we had ahd enough money, we would have gone on holiday.
9. If he had had the ticket to the game last week, he could have got in.
10. If Robert hadn’t started smokinng cigarettes, he wouldn’t have got a bad cough.
Exercise 8. 
1. If it weren’t too cold, they could go swimming.
2. If we had known you were in hospital, we would have visited you.
3. If the doctors could find out the remedy, they could save a lot of people.
4. If we used public bus service, we would get rid of pollution in the city.
5. If the patient had got the treatment, he wouldn’t have died.
6. If I had had an umbrella, I wouldn’t have got wet.
7. If I weren’t tired, I could cycle to work.
8. If that house weren’t too expensive/ were cheaper, I could buy it.
9. If he had workes hard last term, he wouldn’t have lost his job.
10. If it hadn’t been cold yesterday, I would have gone for a walk.
11. If Mary had had money with her, he would have bought that present.
12. If I had known that there was a test yesterday, I would have studied.
13. If the building weren’t too high, he would climb up.
14. If I knew her phone, I would phone her.
15. Unless you post it today, he won’t receive.
Exercise 9:
1. C
11. B
21. A
31. A
41. D
51. A
2. C
12. B
22. B
32. A
42. A
52. C
3. A
13. A
23. D
33. B
43. B
53. A
4. D
14. D
24. D
34. D
44. C
54. B
5. B
15. A
25. D
35. B
45. C
55. B
6. B
16. D
26. C
36. A
46. A
56. B
7. C
17. B
27. A
37. B
47. B
57. D
8. A
18. D
28. C
38. D
48. A
58. D
9. C
19. B
29. D
39. C
49. C
59. C
10. D
20. C
30. C
40. D
50. B
60. A
Exercise 10:
1. B
5. D
9. C
13. A
17. A
2. A
6. C
10. B
14. D
18. C
3. D
7. A
11. D
15. B
19. A
4. A
8. D
12. D
16. D
20. D
Exercise 11:
1. A
11. B
21. A
2. A
12. D
22. A
3. D
13. D
23. B
4. D
14. D
24. D
5. D
15. C
25. B
6. D
16. C
26. D
7. C
17. B
27. B
8. B
18. D
28. B
9. D
19. C
29. A
10. C
20. B
30. D
PHẦN THỨ NĂM: TÀI LIỆU THAM KHẢO
1.. A Practical English Grammar
- A. J. Thomson & A. V. Martinet.
2. Bài tập trắc nghiệm ngữ pháp Tiếng Anh THPT
- Đỗ Tuấn Minh – Hoàng Tuấn
3. Bài tập trắc nghiệm ngữ pháp Tiếng Anh
- Quang Minh
4. Advanced Language Practice
- Michael Vince
5. English Grammar In Use
- Raymond Murphy
6. Thực hành kiến thức Tiếng Anh 12
- Đỗ Bích Hà - Đặng Kim Anh
 Huỳnh Túy Phượng
7. Bài tập Tiếng Anh 12
- Võ Thị Thúy Anh - 
 Tôn Nữ Phương Chi - 
 Lưu Hoằng Trí
8. Tiếng anh 12
- Hoàng Văn Vân
MỤC LỤC
Trang
Phần thứ nhất: Phần mở đầu
1
 I. Lí do chọn đề tài
1
 II. Mục đích nghiên cứu
1
 III. Đối tượng nghiên cứu.
1
 IV. Giới hạn phạm vi nội dung nghiên cứu
1
 V. Nhiệm vụ nghiên cứu
2
 VI. Phương pháp nghiên cứu
2
 VII. Thời gian nghiên cứu
2
Phần thứ hai: Nội dung
3
 Chương I: Cơ sở lí luận của đề tài
3
 Chương II: Thực trạng của đề tài
4
 Chương III: Giải quyết vấn đề
5
 I. Definitions
5
 II. Types of conditional sentences
5
 A. Câu điều kiện theo quan điểm cũ
5
 1. Câu điều kiện loại 1 (type 1)
5
 2. Câu điều kiện loại 2 ( type 2)
6
 3. Câu điều kiện loại 3 (type 3)
6
 B. Các cách diễn đạt khác của câu điều kiện
6
 C. Câu điều kiện theo quan điểm mới
10
 III. Các dạng bài tập về câu điều kiện
13
 1. Dạng bài tập tự luận
13
 2. Dạng bài tập trắc nghiệm
21
Phần thứ ba: Kết luận
31
 1. Ý nghĩa của chuyên đề
31
 2. Đề xuất ý kiến
31
 3. Suy nghĩ của bản thân
31
Phần thứ tư: Answer key
32
Phần thứ năm: Tài liệu tham khảo.
37
 Ý KIẾN ĐÁNH GIÁ CỦA HỘI ĐỒNG KHOA HỌC NHÀ TRƯỜNG
Ý KIẾN ĐÁNH GIÁ CỦA HỘI ĐỒNG KHOA HỌC CẤP TRÊN
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